Nineteenth-century Russia saw not only artistic revolutions, but also political, military, and economic ones. Pushkin’s impetus in literature gave birth to, amongst others, Gogol, Dostoyevsky, and Tolstoy. The new bourgeois class, which came into being with liberalization after the era of Catherine the Great, had a taste for music. As in other countries, musical magazines began to appear. Mostly they published arrangements of popular melodies.